Finance, Credit and Investments- Part 2

Finance, Credit and Investments- Part 2

Welcome back to the Finance, Credit and Investments Series

This is the second article in the series and over the coming weeks, we will publish an in depth analysis of Finance, Credit and Investments.  We hope you find it informative.

We meet with absolutely innovational definitions of finances in Z. Body and R. Merton’s basis manuals. “Financial theory consists of numbers of the conceptions … which learns systematically the subjects of distribution of the cash resources relatively to the time factor; it also considers quantitative models, with the help of which the estimation, putting into practice and realization of the alternative variants of every financial decisions take place”.

For the goals of our monograph, it is important to compare well-known definitions about finances, credit and investment, to decide how and how much it is possible to integrate the finances, investments and credit into the one total part.
Some researcher thing that credit is the consisting part of finances, if it is discussed from the position of essence and category. The other, more numerous group proves, that an economical category of credit exists parallel to the economical category of finances, by which it underlines impossibility of the credit’s existence in the consistence of finances.

Credit is discussed in the following way in the earlier education-methodological manuals of political economy: “credit is the system of money relations, which is created in the process of using and mobilization of temporarily free cash means of the state budget, unions, manufactures, organizations and population. Credit differs from finances by the returning character, while financing of manufactures and organizations by the state is fulfilled without this condition”.

These quantitative models and basic conceptions are used at every level of getting financial decisions, but in the latest definition of finances, we meet with the following doctrine of the financial foundation: main function of the finances is in the satisfaction of the people’s requests; the subjects of economic activities of any kind (firms, also state organs of every level) are directed towards fulfilling this basic function.

This is the traditional definition of credit. In the earlier dictionary of the economy we read: “credit is the system of economic relations, which is formed while the transmission of cash and material means into the temporal usage, as a rule under the conditions of paying and returning percent”.

In the manual of the political economy published under reduction of V. A. Medvedev the following definition is given: “credit, as an economical category, expresses the created relations between the society, labour collective and workers during formation and usage of the loan funds, under the terms of paying present and returning, during transmission of sources for the temporal usage and accumulation”.

N. K. Kuchukova underlined the independence of the category of credit and notes that it is only its “characteristic feature the turned movement of the value, which is not related with transmission of the loan opportunities together with the owners’ rights”.
N. D. Barkovski replies that functioning of money created an economical basis for apportioning finances and credit as an independent category and gave rise to the credit and financial relations. He noticed the Gnoseological roots of science in money and credit, as the science about finances has business with the research of such economic relations, which lean upon cash flow and credit.

We meet with the following definition of credit in the finance-economical dictionary: “credit is the loan in the form of cash and commodity with the conditions of returning, usually, by paying percent. Credit represents a form of movement of the loan capital and expresses economic relations between the creditor and borrower”.

We meet with the following definition if “the course of economy”: “credit is an economical category, which represents relations, while the separate industrial organizations or persons transmit money means to each-other for temporal usage under the conditions of returning. Creation of credit is conditioned by a historical process of fulfilling the economical and money relations, the form of which is the money relation”.

Following scientists give slightly different definitions of credit:

At the same time we must distinguish two resembling concepts: loan and credit.

” Credit – is a loan in the form of money or commodity, which is given to the borrower by a creditor under the conditions of paying the percentage and returning rate by the borrower”.

Combining every definition named above, we come to an idea, that credit is giving money capital of commodity as a debt, for certain terms and material provision under the price of firm percentage rate. It expresses definite economic relations between the participants of the process of capital formation. Necessity of the credit relations is conditioned, from one side, by gathering solid quantity of temporarily free money sources, and from the second side, existence of requests of them.

Credit is giving the temporally free money sources or commodity as a debt for the defined terms by the price of fixed percentage. Thus, a credit is the loan in the form of money or commodity. In the process of this loan’s movement, a definite relations are formed between a creditor (the loan is given by a juridical of physical person, who gives certain cash as a debt) and the debtor.

A Loan is characterized by:

o Here, the discussion may touch upon transmission of money and also things form one side (loaner) to another (borrower): a) under the owning of the borrower and, at the same time, b) under the conditions of returning same amount or same quantity and quality of the things;

o The loaning of money may bear no interest;

o Any person may take part in it.
With the difference with loan, credit, which is somehow a private occasion of the loan, represents:

o One side (loaner) gives to the second one (borrower) only money, and _ for temporal usage;

A credit is the bank credit. To our mind, it is not correct to use “credit” and “loan” as the synonyms.

We meet with the following definition of credit in the finance-economical dictionary: “credit is the loan in the form of cash and commodity with the conditions of returning, usually, by paying percent. Credit is discussed in the following way in the earlier education-methodological manuals of political economy: “credit is the system of money relations, which is created in the process of using and mobilization of temporarily free cash means of the state budget, unions, manufactures, organizations and population. Thus, a credit is the loan in the form of money or commodity. Combining every definition named above, we come to an idea, that credit is giving money capital of commodity as a debt, for certain terms and material provision under the price of firm percentage rate. Necessity of the credit relations is conditioned, from one side, by gathering solid quantity of temporarily free money sources, and from the second side, existence of requests of them.

o In it creditor is not any person, but a credit organization (at the first place, banks).

If the assignment doesn’t foresee something), o It may not bear no interest.

Clarifying the Purchase Order Finance Myth

The actual procedure for Purchase Order Finance is generally not well understood by many applicants which can often lead to confusion of what it really is intended to accomplish. And because of this common misconceptions, this many explanation of what PO Funding is intended to accomplish and how is incorrect.

Myth: PO Financing will allow your company to receive and advance against an order which you have with a creditworthy company and these advanced funds can be used by the borrower to pay for any costs related to the fulfillment of the order.

To begin with, when you are looking at financing a PO scenario, the PO that has been received needs to be issued from an entity which does have decent credibility as this company will be the one paying the invoice in the end and there must be a good assurance that the customer will in fact pay the amount due. The verified order form must be of a format which clearly displays the relevant elements of the proposed purchase by showing what has been purchased from whom and at what price as well as when the payment for the order will be made. Should any part of this information be left out or be ambiguous, the application for PO Finance application shall be unquestionably denied.

As aforementioned, the purchaser of the goods has to have acceptable credit. For many PO Finance Companies, the domicile of the purchaser is not critical so long as the purchaser can be verified to have a reasonable expectation to pay the bill when it is due.

From time to time, some PO Funders will allow for creating alternative credit ratings where the lender actually contacts credit references of the purchaser to confirm that the purchaser in the current transaction has a history of paying invoices as agreed.

On the subject order all relevant information must be presented clearly. These details will include who the purchaser is, who the seller is, when the purchaser will pay, how the product will be delivered, what is being purchased as well as any other conditions are required to consider the contract fulfilled.

Very important is the fact that Purchase Order Finance does not advance liquid funds to your company for you to pay expenses with, there will be no cash advances on purchase contracts. Should your business need funds in advance in order to pay the costs of doing the work of completing a sales contract you will need to look into other financing options as PO Finance will not meet your needs.

Manufacturing entities generally will not qualify for a PO Facility as these types of programs are generally suited towards facilitators of a transaction, not the manufacturer. What the financer is looking for in order to approve your PO Funding scenario would be for you, the Intermediary, to arrange for the manufacturing company to deliver the goods to the end buyer without you, the Intermediary, ever taking delivery or doing any work on the product being sold.

To clarify the concept, an example of a typical Purchase Order Finance transaction is follows.

Consider thiPurchase Order Finances: You are a broker selling a widget which is made by Company A and it has been ordered by Company B.

After all negotiations, you have finalized the contract of sale and the buyer agrees to pay within 30 days of delivery. The problem lies in that the manufacturer requires payment prior to allowing the goods to leave their dock and you do not have sufficient cashflow to carry the payment until the buyer pays for the order so you have a gap of 6 weeks from time of shipment of the goods until the buyer pays, taking into consideration a 2 week delivery time.

In the example given, there is a gap of a month and a half from the time the payment must be made for the widgets until the buyer of the widgets actually pays for them. As long as all the boxes can be ticked for purchaser having an acceptable credit standing and the purchase contract being structured properly, this is a Purchase Order Finance transaction which can be funding with most PO Lenders.


What is Accounts Receivable Factoring?

What is Accounts Receivable Factoring?Accounts Receivable Factoring

A huge selection of years ago merchants who sold clothing material would in turn sell their accounts receivables to parties that would advance funds for the merchant in exchange for the future debt on a non-recourse format. Purchasing future receivables without having recourse would imply the understanding that if the buyer of the goods did not make the required payment, there could be no resort for the purchaser on the debt to seek reimbursement from the merchant who sold the debt. This sale of the debt would be carried out at a discount according to the appetite of the buyer of the debt.

The modern day version of this situation will be referred to as AR Financing even so the majority of providers will call the practice factoring nonetheless. In this format, the purchaser of the debt advances funds against the worth from the invoices however they usually are not par with the face value of the debt. Within this scenario, the future revenues would be the borrowing or advance base of the funds advanced with a safety-net held back. The invoice base is actually collateral for funds advanced with full-recourse to the merchant.  The security in this case will imply that in the event that the payer of the debt does not adhere to the terms in the sale, the vendor would hold the ultimate obligation for the loan.

The principal concept here is that money in hand today is more desirable than a larger amount of funds at a future date. The gap between the amount of funds paid today for the future debt brings numerous components together to calculate the risk with the future payment which includes the relative assurance level that the debtor will pay.  Additional consideration factors for the risk calculation would be the industry of the vendor, the volume of funds changing hands, how long each and every collection should and does take, the credit standing of all parties in addition to the domicile of the companies involved.

Banks will usually only look to work with businesses which have been in business for quite a few years, Accounts Receivable Financing is offered to firms that may have a brief or long history of existence.   A vital consideration when taking into considering Factoring is that the quantity of sales in the enterprise earns, simply because the facility will commonly be determined by a percentage on the entire outstanding accounts receivables.

No matter what industry your company is in, it can be extremely likely that it will acceptable to most Accounts Receivable Factoring Lenders. That being said, due to the nature of the construction industry, the majority  of  Commercial Lenders won’t get involved with this sector as well as a few other “restricted industries”.

“Simple Industries” to get Accounts Receivable Factoring for:

  • Transport companies,
  • Temp-agencies,
  • Factories and
  • Distribution companies

If you are in search of funding for an organization who is included in the in among these “simple industries”, there is certainly a good possibility of finding funded so long as you sell to creditworthy providers, you have got confirmed orders, you have fairly predictable monthly sales and you have been in business for six months or more.

In case your business less seasoning that six months, it can be possible to obtain funding for your enterprise using Accounts Receivable Factoring so long as your debtors do possess a reasonable history of paying on time.

Hopefully you now have a good understanding of of what AR Factoring is and how it might aid your business. As always, be certain which type of facility your are getting prior to entering into a funding agreement.

Why Consider Alternative Commercial Lenders

Is new equipment procurement in the near future for your business? Have you looked into the different methods of financing thus far? The bank is one option for you but there are many Alternative Commercial Lenders that have programs not offered by the bank which can make the best solution more complicated to determine.

If you are like most company owners you will first look to your local bank or credit union for financing the acquisition of your new equipment? Is this the most prudent manner to handle the purchase? Most often just going to your bank is not the best answer. It may or may not surprise you to find that Equipment Finance Companies will have lending options that will work better for your company that will not involve you having to offer nearly the amount of security that a bank would typically seek.

What is the most significant difference between the bank and the Alternative Commercial Lenders?

Alternative Commercial Lenders

Is it best to do a straight buy for the procurement? Your accountant would be the expert you need to consult with to determine which structure is best as there may be tax implications when looking at the options of depreciation versus expensing the entire payment but with the options in the market, you will be able to choose which is best for your situation. Per the previous disclaimer, this article is not intended to give tax advice in any manner, it is meant to inform of options, but you may be able to expense the entire equipment finance payment in the year that the payment was made, rather than having to carry the depreciation over several year as allowed by the tax and accounting guidelines. Most of the time when you have to expense the purchase of an item of equipment, you will need to spread the payments over more years than the payments you are making. With a lease, you can usually expense the lease payment in the year your make the payments for a more immediate benefit to you tax wise.

There are very few limitations to the availability of Equipment Finance options based on industries so whether you are looking for trucks, computers, buildings, boats, radio equipment or machine presses you will be sure to find choices. Your company’s needs should be able to be met due to the sheer number of Commercial Funders available to assist your business regardless of what industry you are in or what equipment you are in need of.

As you may expect, the finance rates for Commercial Equipment Financing do vary quite a lot. As with most Alternative Commercial Lenders’ Programs the credit risk it the most important factor which takes into consideration the credit profile of the proprietors of the enterprise as well company itself. After credit ratings are taken into consideration, the next item to be considered is the amount to be financed. Most Alternative Commercial Lenders do have minimum deal sizes due to the cost of doing business as their are certain fixed costs associated with the transaction as would be expected.  As this is the case the general minimum amount that is considered acceptable would be $5000 but do keep in mind that there are many lenders that have minimum required transaction sizes higher than this.

Unfortunately not all regions do have Commercial Equipment Lenders that service them. There are jurisdictions that exist in the world that Commercial Finance Companies just will not do business in due to elevated risk. In cases where there are no Alternative Commercial Lenders, your only real option very well may be the bank where you can seek traditional financing for your company.

In closing, should you be intending to add equipment for your company you do owe it to yourself and your company to look into the various options available at Alternative Commercial Lenders today.

Using your precious cash reserves for purchasing equipment may seem like a prudent thing to do and if you can afford that, good for you, just be careful not to leave your company strapped for cash if collections do not come in as planned.

Small to Medium Enterprise (SME) Lending

Over the last years it has become really noticeable that the arena of SME Lending has grown like never before.  As of right now, your business has access to many lending products and more lenders on a national and international basis than ever before. This new evolution of Small Business Loans will allow your business to have access to funding from all over the globe.

Traditional SME Lending

If you prefer to deal locally, you can visit your nearby bank and apply for a bank loan there.  When you do, be sure to should bring your identification, company organization and registration docu

ments, two years of audited financial statements and tax returns which includes a confirmation letter of your tax department confirming your taxes are current. Also, a Business Plan might be required along with filling out the application with bank agent.SME Lending

Once the required documentation has been received by the bank, they will request a formal credit report in the respective credit reporting agency of your county. Assuming that the report is favorable with respect to credit score, outstanding judgments/collections/liens, your ratio of debt servicing to revenues falls within the permitted limits and you should be given an offer to finance by the bank. In the case where you do proceed with the loan, they will deposit the funds into your account once you have signed all necessary documents and the bank has placed a lien on all assets of your business in addition to your personal assets (as they will likely also be pledged as security for the loan). To maintain the proper expectations, it is important to acknowledge that the processing time for you to get the funds deposited into your bank account, from the time that the complete application has been submitted, can typically span 10 to 12 weeks. No urgent situations should be considered when considering this type of financing.

Alternative SME Lending

Should you be interested in working with Alternative SME Funders (not banks), it should be noticed that the approach and security required in not as restrictive. Typically speaking you are going to find that the Alternative Commercial Lenders in the market place will require bank statements for the recent 12 of months, ID along with a letter of explanation of what the funds will be used for, in addition to the formal application with the lender. The processing of your application will then take place which ordinarily is carried out in a matter of a couple of days. When all has been accepted, approval and documents will likely be issued within hours in most of situations, not weeks. Upon receipt in the endorsed agreement by the Alternative Commercial Lender, the actual funding will probably be scheduled for the following day. Some funders require a wet signature (handwritten) and others will accept a digital signature/scanned copy. Most funding contracts will stipulate required items that have to be completed before transmission of funds. The time period from application until funding is usually under a week. My individual record is three days!

Bank loans can be a pretty cumbersome and painful, taking weeks or months to wade through application forms and hurdle after hurdle  to jump over to get the loan you need to take your company to the next level.

Traditional and Alternative SME Lending Compared

Aside from the simplicity and efficiency of alternative SML Lending, there is yet another distinction. This really is the expense. It does have a higher cost to utilize non-traditional Small to Medium Business Lenders and it is up to the business owner to ascertain if the additional expense outweighs the benefits of having the ability to fund quickly and skip over all the red tape of the traditional bank.  Every single company is unique and therefore has distinctive requirements. Only you can decide what’s the very best for your enterprise. The reason all the different varieties of funders exist is because of the distinctive varieties of borrowers of the market.  The decision of what to do is yours.

Important Factors That Determine Your Commercial Mortgage Loan

Commercial Mortgage Loans are generally given to people who own businesses that are interested in purchasing another property or re-finance an existing mortgage.


The underlying structure of the Commercial Mortgage Financing

Apart from the personal guarantee, is that the property is held as security for the repayment of the loan. But precisely this fact makes it possible for the Commercial Loans to have interest rates less costly than other types of loans with lower a classification of collateral. The importance of the investment also means that the term is longer that Short-term Commercial Loans which makes for an easier payment.

In order for you to obtain a real estimate of the amount you will be paying for your Commercial Mortgage you will need to take care of a few things. The first one is the valuation of the subject property. An accurate appraisal of the property will inform you on the actual price of the property in the market and will allow any buyer to get a real price.

Commercial Mortgage Loans

The valuation of the property makes you more reliable to the eyes of your financial institution. You will need to hire a third appraisal company to do it for you. The value you pay for these services will come out of your pocket, whether the Commercial Mortgage Loan is given to you or not.

Your income is also another criterion fore the financial institution will be used to determine the total amount of your financing. Generally, they may stipulate that the payments are made in monthly installments that are not over than 30% of the net income the company on a monthly basis.  This debt-servicing ratio will vary from lender to lender but it is a basis for the assurance for both the lender and you so that your company will be able to afford the payment each month without undue hardship, and your financial institution avoids follow-up costs.

Once you find out what the real value of your property is, and if you income fits the criteria established by the financial institution, your Commercial Mortgage Loan would generally be up  to 70% or 80% of the appraised value.  Again, this will vary from lender to lender based on lenders’ preferences for risk.

It is suggested that you talk with both Traditional and Non-Traditional Commercial Lenders to determine the amount of your Commercial Mortgage Loan to find the program and payment that fits best with your companies budget.