Finance, Credit and Investments

Finance, Credit and Investments- Part 4

Economical Course

We stopped at the definition of the investments in the capital work “economical course” for the special purpose, as, in it the author tried to discuss the concept of investments systemically and quite completely, herewith the book is published just now.

Changing native economical termini with foreign ones is purposeful, if it really matters (by keeping parallel usage of the native termini for the inheritance). We must not change native economical termini into foreign ones all together, when by ordinal traditional language easy to explain narrow and private concrete processes and elements get their own termini. The “movement” of these termini is approved in the narrow professional bounds, but their “spitting out” into the economical science may turn economical language into the tangled slang.

Except the termini “investments”, there are two more termini related with the investment. They are shown below.
” Human capital investment” – any activity provided for rising the workers labour productivity (in the way of growing their qualification and developing their abilities); at the expenses of improving the workers’ education, health and raising the mobility of the working forces”. It is very useful to use the mentioned termini, though it needs one correction: the human capital investments do not concern only workers, but also the servants, representatives of every kind of labour.

For today, in the most actual definitions, the capital investments are bounded only by financial means, when not only financial, but also the investment of natural, informational and material-technical resources takes place. Labour resources take an actual place in the investment process. They themselves fulfill this or that investment process.

Renewing.

Economical categories theoretically represent real, objectively existed productive relations. Generally, any educational process is fulfilled by the categories, which give opportunities for dividing the occasions and processes semantically, for expressing the definitions of a subject and realize their specific peculiarities and economic relations of a material world.

They apportion investment commodity, to which belong nonindustrial and industrial building objects, vehicles purposed for changing or widened technical park and the furniture, increasing others and reserves.

Widening;.

” Investment commodity, capital goods – a capital.”
In the official manuals of political economy of the reformation time the capital investments are discussed as “expenses for creating new main funds and widening, reconstruction and renewing the active ones”. In this definition the investments (capital placements) during separation of the forms (types) of further production of the main funds are bounded only by main funds (without increases of the circulation funds and insurance reserves):.

Human capital investment is “a specific kind of investments, mostly in education and health protection”.

As we’ve mentioned above, not long ago, in the well-known Soviet literature the concepts of “the placement of funds” and “investments” were accepted to be the synonyms and concerned to be investment of sources for further production of the main funds and formation of the turnover funds. We meet with such understanding of the concept of “investment” (here, they separate three types of the investment expenses: investments in the basic capital of investments, investments in the house building and investments in the reserves) in the modern economical publications and it is mostly used on the macro level during a statistical analyze of economical processes. In this concrete occasion investment is the category of reserve.

Reconstruction;.

” They call the total investments of production an investment product, which is directed towards keeping and increasing the basic capital (basic means) and reserve. Second consisting part of the total investments is represented by net investments – capital investments for the purpose of increasing basic means”.

We share wholly such definition, hence it follows that financial investments (if it is not followed by real investments as a result) do not increase real material wealth and real nonmaterial wealth. According to this context, the expression below is very important: “we must distinguish financial investments, which represent placement of the funds in the ways of selling and purchasing the securities for the purpose of getting profit and financial investments, which become cash and real, moved to real physical capital.”.

Our goal is exactly to substantiate investments – as an economical category and also, as a financial category in the narrow understanding.

You’ll meet below the definitions of investments from “the course of economy”: the investments are called “placements of fund into the basic capital (basic means of production), reserves, also other economical objects and processes, which request long-termed influxing of material and cash means. “According to the division of capital into physical and money forms, the investments too must be divided into material and cash investments”.

Here we apply for another manual thesis made by the academician Vasil Chantladze: “every financial relation is an economical one and every financial category is and economical one, but not every economical relation and economical category is financial relation and financial category”.

Compared with such definition of the investments (capital placement) the definition of investments in the dictionary attaching the “Economics” seems to be unimproved: “investments – the expenses of gathering production and industrial means and increasing material reserve”. Second consisting part of the total investments is represented by net investments – capital investments for the purpose of increasing basic means”.” Real investments are the investments in the economical branches and also, they are kinds of economic activities, which provide influxing the increases of real capital that is increasing material values of the industrial means”. According to this context, the expression below is very important: “we must distinguish financial investments, which represent placement of the funds in the ways of selling and purchasing the securities for the purpose of getting profit and financial investments, which become cash and real, moved to real physical capital.”.

Another occasion: it is advisable to discuss investments in two aspects: as a category of reserve and flow, which will reflect exactly the connection between “placement of funds” and “investments”.

Compared with such definition of the investments (capital placement) the definition of investments in the dictionary attaching the “Economics” seems to be unimproved: “investments – the expenses of gathering production and industrial means and increasing material reserve”. Not the investment expenses but (though the investments are followed by the appropriate expenses) exactly advancing.

” Real investments are the investments in the economical branches and also, they are kinds of economic activities, which provide influxing the increases of real capital that is increasing material values of the industrial means”. We can agree with such definition with one specification that material and nonmaterial values too belong to the real capital (wealth), consequently science-researching experimental-construction results, various information, education of the others and workers. Such service as organization of the excitable games, also the service of redistribution social wealth from one private person to another (except charity).

The concept of the industrial gathering appears, at the expenses of widening of basic, circulation funds and also insurance reserves takes place”.

We don’t meet with the termini “investments” in the earlier economical dictionary, but we meet the combined termini “investment policy” – the union of the industrial decisions, which guarantee main directions of the capital investments, the activities of their concentration in the determinant suburbs, on which the reaching of planned rates of development of the society production is depended, balancing and effectiveness, getting more and more production and profit of the national income for every lost Ruble”.

In the process of defining the investments, it is important to take in mind the sides of incomes, resources and expenses, because investment, from one side, is the result of the manufacture’s activity, and, from another one, – a part of income, which, in this case, is not used for usage.

We meet with such understanding of the concept of “investment” (here, they separate three types of the investment expenses: investments in the basic capital of investments, investments in the house building and investments in the reserves) in the modern economical publications and it is mostly used on the macro level during a statistical analyze of economical processes.

Recognizing the existence of the bounds between them, the authors ascribe short-termed investments to “one month or more” investments. A long-termed character of the fund placement is a significant feature of the investments (short-term doesn’t combine with the concept of investments).